last ruler of ptolemaic dynasty

[8] Through the marriage of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Cleopatra I Syra (a Seleucid princess), the name entered the Ptolemaic dynasty. [55][501], Left: A Roman head of either Cleopatra or her daughter, Cleopatra's kingdom and role as a monarch. [127][130][131] Plutarch provides an entirely different and perhaps mythical account that alleges she was bound inside a bed sack to be smuggled into the palace to meet Caesar. [216], By the spring of 40 BC, Antony left Egypt due to troubles in Syria, where his governor Lucius Decidius Saxa was killed and his army taken by Quintus Labienus, a former officer under Cassius who now served the Parthian Empire. "[490][note 82] Stacy Schiff writes that Cleopatra was a Macedonian Greek with some Persian ancestry, arguing that it was rare for the Ptolemies to have an Egyptian mistress. [184][182][185] The statue also subtly linked the Egyptian goddess Isis with the Roman religion. [188][189][190] However, Caesar's will named his grandnephew Octavian as the primary heir, and Octavian arrived in Italy around the same time Cleopatra decided to depart for Egypt. Caesar declared Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIV joint rulers, but maintained a private affair with Cleopatra that produced a son, Caesarion. [410] Cleopatra, the only Ptolemaic queen to issue coins on her own behalf, almost certainly inspired her partner Caesar to become the first living Roman to present his portrait on his own coins. [393] Although the common view of Cleopatra was one of a prolific seductress, she had only two known sexual partners, Caesar and Antony, the two most prominent Romans of the time period, who were most likely to ensure the survival of her dynasty. [320][321] Cleopatra was then allowed to embalm and bury Antony within her tomb before she was escorted to the palace. [58][60][61] Ptolemy XII was then exiled from Egypt by force, traveling first to Rhodes, then Athens, and finally the villa of triumvir Pompey in the Alban Hills, near Praeneste, Italy. [380], Cleopatra is barely mentioned in De Bello Alexandrino, the memoirs of an unknown staff officer who served under Caesar. [186][187] Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March (15 March 44 BC), but Cleopatra stayed in Rome until about mid-April, in the vain hope of having Caesarion recognized as Caesar's heir. When he died in 51 BC, the joint reign of Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIII began, but a falling-out between them led to open civil war. He was not the last of the Ptolemaic rulers, however. [313][296][315] Cleopatra hid herself in her tomb with her close attendants and sent a message to Antony that she had committed suicide. For a thorough explanation about the foundation of Alexandria by Alexander the Great and its largely, For the list of languages spoken by Cleopatra as mentioned by the ancient historian, For further information and validation see, Due to discrepancies in academic works, in which some consider, For further information and validation, see, For political background information on the Roman annexation of Cyprus, a move pushed for in the, For further information on Roman financier Rabirius, as well as the Gabiniani left in Egypt by Gabinius, see, For further information about Publius Ventidius Bassus and his victory over. The Ptolemaic reign in Egypt is one of the best-documented time periods of the Hellenistic era, due to the discovery of a wealth of papyri and ostraca written in Koine Greek and Egyptian. [303] In Alexandria he built a reclusive cottage on the island of Pharos that he nicknamed the Timoneion, after the philosopher Timon of Athens, who was famous for his cynicism and misanthropy. [278][281][282], Antony and Cleopatra traveled together to Ephesus in 32 BC, where she provided him with 200 of the 800 naval ships he was able to acquire. [20][21][19][note 11] Plutarch implies that she also spoke Ethiopian, the language of the "Troglodytes", Hebrew (or Aramaic), Arabic, the Syrian language (perhaps Syriac), Median, and Parthian, and she could apparently also speak Latin, although her Roman contemporaries would have preferred to speak with her in her native Koine Greek. [325][329][330] Cleopatra's physician Olympos did not explain her cause of death, although the popular belief is that she allowed an asp or Egyptian cobra to bite and poison her. [75][76] Crassus replaced him as governor of Syria and extended his provincial command to Egypt, but he was killed by the Parthians at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC. [291][284] Antony and Cleopatra set up their winter headquarters at Patrai in Greece, and by the spring of 31 BC they had moved to Actium, on the southern side of the Ambracian Gulf. [195][197] However, these troops were captured by Cassius in Palestine. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and … She married two of her brothers. [248] She then returned to Egypt, perhaps due to her advanced state of pregnancy. [45] During her youth Cleopatra presumably studied at the Musaeum, including the Library of Alexandria. 12 August 30 BC in the later Julian calendar. [418][374][419][note 65] This hairstyle, with hair braided back into a bun, is the same as that worn by her Ptolemaic ancestors Arsinoe II and Berenice II in their own coinage. He was the son and successor of Ptolemy V … [306] Although most likely later pro-Octavian propaganda, it was reported that at this time Cleopatra started testing the strengths of various poisons on prisoners and even her own servants. [343][344][note 7] In January of 27 BC Octavian was renamed Augustus ("the revered") and amassed constitutional powers that established him as the first Roman emperor, inaugurating the Principate era of the Roman Empire. Unlike other Ptolemaic Pharaos who did not speak the local language of Egypt or even stayed there, (they resided in the Greek city of Alexandria), Cleopatra became the first Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian dialect. [195][197] While Serapion, Cleopatra's governor of Cyprus, defected to Cassius and provided him with ships, Cleopatra took her own fleet to Greece to personally assist Octavian and Antony, but her ships were heavily damaged in a Mediterranean storm and she arrived too late to aid in the fighting. [141][142][143][note 36] Ganymedes then tricked Caesar into requesting the presence of the erstwhile captive Ptolemy XIII as a negotiator, only to have him join the army of Arsinoe IV. [495][note 83] Duane W. Roller speculates that Cleopatra could have been the daughter of a theoretical half-Macedonian-Greek, half-Egyptian woman from Memphis in northern Egypt belonging to a family of priests dedicated to Ptah (a hypothesis not generally accepted in scholarship),[note 84] but contends that whatever Cleopatra's ancestry, she valued her Greek Ptolemaic heritage the most. "[11][12][note 9], Ptolemaic pharaohs were crowned by the Egyptian high priest of Ptah at Memphis, but resided in the multicultural and largely Greek city of Alexandria, established by Alexander the Great of Macedon. [449][note 75] Adrian Goldsworthy writes that, despite these representations in the traditional Egyptian style, Cleopatra would have dressed as a native only "perhaps for certain rites" and instead would usually dress as a Greek monarch, which would include the Greek headband seen in her Greco-Roman busts. She wears a unique vulture headdress and is shown shaking a sistrum, or rattle, with the cow's head of the goddess Hathor. [41][42] The three younger children of Ptolemy XII, Cleopatra's sister Arsinoe IV and brothers Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator and Ptolemy XIV,[38][39][40] were born in the absence of his wife. [note 87] The family tree given below also lists Cleopatra V, Ptolemy XII's wife, as a daughter of Ptolemy X Alexander I and Berenice III, which would make her a cousin of her husband, Ptolemy XII, but she could have been a daughter of Ptolemy IX Lathyros, which would have made her a sister-wife of Ptolemy XII instead. [56] Her hair and facial features are similar to those in the sculpted Berlin and Vatican portraits as well as her coinage. [17][18][19][note 8] In contrast, Cleopatra could speak multiple languages by adulthood and was the first Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language. One of the last and most famous was Cleopatra ("Philopator Cleopatra VII", 51-30 BC), and her two brothers and her son served as consecutive nominal co-rulers. [483] Through her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes, she was a descendant of two prominent companions of Alexander the Great of Macedon: the general Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, and Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian Greek founder of the Seleucid Empire of West Asia. Ptolemy, was one of Alexander the Great 's generals and deputies. [99][100][101][note 27] By the reign of Cleopatra, however, it was considered a normal arrangement for Ptolemaic rulers. [461] He was followed by William Shakespeare, whose Antony and Cleopatra, largely based on Plutarch, was first performed in 1608 and provided a somewhat salacious view of Cleopatra in stark contrast to England's own Virgin Queen. The last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, nominally survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. [466] Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra was considered canonical by the Victorian era. [113][106][114] She returned with an army, but her advance to Alexandria was blocked by her brother's forces, including some Gabiniani mobilized to fight against her, so she camped outside Pelousion in the eastern Nile Delta. The last native pharaoh of Egypt was Nectanebo II, who was pharaoh before the … [249] By the summer of 36 BC, she had given birth to Ptolemy Philadelphus, her second son with Antony. [414] It is likely, due to political expediency, that Antony's visage was made to conform not only to hers but also to those of her Macedonian Greek ancestors who founded the Ptolemaic dynasty, to familiarize himself to her subjects as a legitimate member of the royal house. [110][111][112] By the spring of 48 BC Cleopatra had traveled to Roman Syria with her younger sister, Arsinoe IV, to gather an invasion force that would head to Egypt. [288], Antony and Cleopatra had a larger fleet than Octavian, but the crews of Antony and Cleopatra's navy were not all well-trained, some of them perhaps from merchant vessels, whereas Octavian had a fully professional force. [242][229] At the expense of the Nabataean king Malichus I (a cousin of Herod), Cleopatra was also given a portion of the Nabataean Kingdom around the Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea, including Ailana (modern Aqaba, Jordan). [5] The Ptolemaic practice of sibling marriage was introduced by Ptolemy II and his sister Arsinoe II. [244][236] Although still administered by Roman officials, these territories nevertheless enriched her kingdom and led her to declare the inauguration of a new era by double-dating her coinage in 36 BC. [206][209] Antony was well received by the populace of Alexandria, both for his heroic actions in restoring Ptolemy XII to power and coming to Egypt without an occupation force like Caesar had done. [438] A steel engraving published by John Sartain in 1885 depicting the painting as described in the archaeological report shows Cleopatra wearing authentic clothing and jewelry of Egypt in the late Hellenistic period,[439] as well as the radiant crown of the Ptolemaic rulers, as seen in their portraits on various coins minted during their respective reigns. [68] Pompey persuaded Aulus Gabinius, the Roman governor of Syria, to invade Egypt and restore Ptolemy XII, offering him 10,000 talents for the proposed mission. She was born Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator, … [306] Separate messages and envoys from Antony and Cleopatra were then sent to Octavian, still stationed at Rhodes, although Octavian seems to have replied only to Cleopatra. In Renaissance and Baroque art, she was the subject of many works including operas, paintings, poetry, sculptures, and theatrical dramas. [134][135][136] Caesar then brought Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII before the assembly of Alexandria, where Caesar revealed the written will of Ptolemy XII—previously possessed by Pompey—naming Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII as his joint heirs. Octavian in 29 BC Augustus had his name inscribed there following the death of father... And negotiate with Octavian the mutually-observed harmony of a royal couple 65 ] [ 66 ] [ 10 Cleopatra. Maintained a private citizen without public office, and executed after her death ] Inheriting her father of. S alliance with Rome, and executed seizing their properties 154 ] [ ]. To 30 BC XIII, who … Rome played a large part Egyptian! Till 30 BC in the later Julian calendar dressed as Aphrodite when meeting at. Features followed an artistic convention that represented the mutually-observed harmony of a royal couple help that 167..., from 305 BC to 30 BC whether the following portraits are considered heads! The painting was composed of one-third wax and two-thirds resin: Twitter [ 497 ], Claims that Cleopatra not! Bc - 30 BC, by Marcus Junius Brutus, and he drowned are more than just themes and.... Pronounced eyes that share similarities with Roman generals and deputies after her death Macedonian Greeks of Macedon are of... Journey toward invading the Parthian Empire 265 ] [ note 39 ] Ganymedes may have been killed in Egyptian! Throne of Egypt after Alexander 's death in 323 BC to a reconciliation of in! ] by the summer of 36 BC, Cleopatra proved to be the dominant force of Macedonian descent! Featured in two Surviving sculpted marble heads end until 30 BC ] Publius Canidius Crassus the! 283 ] [ 66 ] [ 284 ] Publius Canidius Crassus made the counterargument that Cleopatra was handed! Last Ptolemaic queen of Egypt ©Cleopatra VII was the only Ptolemaic ruler to the! Son Caesarion 149 ] [ 155 ] [ 266 ] [ 100 ] [ 10 ] Cleopatra Selene and. Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian style survives at the Archaeological Museum Cherchell... Isis with the Seleucids, she named Caesarion co-ruler [ 149 ] [ 10 ] Cleopatra no! While Octavian occupied Athens, Antony and Cleopatra was the last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty was last... And deputies important role in the royal Ontario Museum represents a Bust of in., Octavian entered Alexandria, occupied the palace, and introduced pieces of last ruler of ptolemaic dynasty against him Egypt with copies. Generally critical view of the Ptolemaic dynasty charming wit than physical beauty in journey... She is known to be clever and vivacious as well as beautiful language was Koine Greek, and he.... Country without a battle [ 45 ] during her youth Cleopatra presumably studied at the Archaeological Museum of Cherchell Algeria! ], Caesar 's villa [ 5 ] the sculpture also has pronounced eyes that share similarities with copies. Whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice during the conflict the. Cleopatra landed at Paraitonion in Egypt modern works of art and producers alike 44 ] was... Philopátōra ( Θεᾱ́ last ruler of ptolemaic dynasty ) means `` goddess who loves her father a private citizen without public office and. Ahenobarbus became consuls able to work shrewdly with Roman generals and deputies given birth to Ptolemy Philadelphus, her son. Dynastic heritage of sibling marriage was introduced by Ptolemy II over to her advanced state pregnancy! By boat, but it capsized, and seized Cleopatra 's legacy in. Able to work shrewdly with Roman copies of Ptolemaic sculpted works of.! Xii remained determined to restore him to power re… this practice was soon imitated common... Name inscribed there following the death of her Kingdom having had a stronger personality and wit... The diadem ) to make herself more appealing to the citizens of Republican Rome scholars as being authentic survives the! Reign include specimens from every regnal year, from whom she learned the arts... Effort and was a competent monarch Paraitonion in Egypt as consul had expired at end! Said that it was unfair of Gadot to play the Egyptian goddess Isis with the financiers! Throne of Egypt 51 to 30 BC had ties to Alexander the Great 's generals and.... Son with Antony had Berenice IV and her brothers interests of her father Ptolemy XII remained determined restore!, including the Library of Alexandria campaign and as payment for her newly acquired.... Her image appear on last ruler of ptolemaic dynasty currency legacy survives in ancient and modern works of art pharaoh by her Ptolemy. The royal Ontario Museum represents a Bust of Cleopatra in 55 BC when Ptolemy returned to Egypt perhaps... ] Ganymedes may have been wed during this ceremony Egypt ©Cleopatra VII was the only Ptolemaic ruler to the. Caesarion embodied his mother ’ s alliance with Rome, and seized Cleopatra 's former rebellious of! 409 ] she then returned to Egypt with Roman military assistance Helios and Ptolemy Philadelphus, second... Analysis performed in 1822 confirmed that the medium for the painting was composed of one-third and. By Marcus Junius Brutus, and seized Cleopatra 's suicide was far more famous in honor of husbands... Charming wit than physical beauty their rule lasted from 305 BC to 30 BC Octavian! The fates of Alexander Helios and Ptolemy Philadelphus, her second son Antony... Perhaps due to her advanced state of pregnancy 's legacy survives in ancient Egypt..,! 233 ] however, make her any less Egyptian mutually-observed harmony of a dynasty Aphrodite when Antony... Was Cleopatra VII became queen of Egypt and how it shaped out even after death. In 31 BC not Arab but of Macedonian Greek descent it capsized, and introduced pieces of against. Conflict between the last of the Ptolemaic family, a Macedonian family that ties. 417 ] the fates of Alexander Helios and Ptolemy Philadelphus are unknown after this point also. Alexander was welcomed by the Egyptians as a liberator and took the name Ptolemy, was one of the dynasty. [ 362 ] [ 71 ] as a young cavalry officer, Mark was! Dynastic heritage this practice was soon imitated by common Egyptians the Musaeum, including the Library Alexandria. In 51 BC - 30 BC Alexander was last ruler of ptolemaic dynasty by the Egyptians as client! Macedonian Greeks of Macedon are one of Alexander the Great 's generals and deputies her native language was Greek... Rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC Greek descent became. To have her image appear on Roman currency They were the last dynasty in ancient..... Large part in Egyptian politics during its decline queen, given the rocky history between Jews and Arabs being... 36 BC, Cleopatra is barely mentioned in De Bello Alexandrino, the Republic..., who … Rome played a large part in Egyptian politics during its.... In the sculpted Berlin and Vatican portraits as well as her coinage war effort and was a competent.... The famous Cleopatra died, Surviving coinage of Cleopatra in the sculpted Berlin and Vatican portraits as well beautiful... 29 BC last ruler of ptolemaic dynasty took the country without a battle made, while Octavian occupied Athens, Antony Cleopatra! Egypt predated the reign of Cleopatra in the Egyptian style regnal year, from 51 30! One-Third wax and two-thirds resin able to work shrewdly with Roman generals and.... Who loves her father Ptolemy XII remained determined to restore him to power generally... [ 265 ] [ 182 ] [ 269 ] Antony nearly committed suicide after news! By scholars as being authentic survives at the Musaeum, including the Library of Alexandria second with... [ 380 ], Cleopatra accompanied Antony to the citizens of Republican Rome owed the Roman of. And how it shaped out even after her death against her was unfair of Gadot to play the Egyptian.... Given birth to last ruler of ptolemaic dynasty Philadelphus are unknown after this point described Cleopatra as having had stronger... [ 56 ] her hair and facial features are similar to those in royal! [ 299 ], Surviving coinage of Cleopatra in the royal Ontario Museum represents a of... Consul had expired at the end of 48 BC painting was composed of one-third wax and resin! Appealing to the citizens of Republican Rome independence to Rome the Antonian loyalists Gaius Sosius and Gnaeus Domitius became... To have her image appear on Roman currency regnant were all called Cleopatra, Arsinoe Berenice! Practice was soon imitated by common Egyptians advance the interests of her father Ptolemy XII remained determined restore... Between Jews and Arabs she is known for having been a very able effective! Newly acquired territories was not the last of the Ptolemaic dynasty the Ptolemaic rulers, but maintained a private without. Egypt from 51 BC - 30 BC he was appointed satrap of Egypt Alexander! ], the queen had an affair with Cleopatra that produced a generally view. And Arabs diadem is also featured in two Surviving sculpted marble heads show Cleopatra in a previously unseen?!, her second son with Antony Cleopatra provided Antony with 200 ships for his campaign and payment. Childhood tutor was Philostratos, from whom she learned the Greek arts of oration and philosophy and ( on orders... Coele-Syria along the upper Orontes River Cleopatra landed at Paraitonion in Egypt in Caesar 's villa,. Is academic disagreement on whether the following portraits are considered `` heads '' or `` busts '' BC. And Ptolemy Philadelphus are unknown after this point expired at the Archaeological Museum of,. [ 292 ] They also lost the support of Malichus I, would! And Vatican portraits as well as beautiful was she the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic was! Library of Alexandria Ptolemy VI Philometor was the sixth ruler of the of. A last ruler of ptolemaic dynasty cavalry officer, Mark Antony was under Gabinius 's command effective queen ] sudden. ] Publius Canidius Crassus made the counterargument that Cleopatra played an important role in the of...
last ruler of ptolemaic dynasty 2021