Daughter of King Ptolemy XII Auletes, Cleopatra was destined to become the last queen of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce and its annexation by Rome in 30 bce. She was soon murdered by her cousin and co-regent, Ptolemy XI, who was then killed. However, Rome did not wish to invade Egypt to restore the king, since the Sibylline books stated that if an Egyptian king asked for help and Rome proceeded with military intervention, great dangers and difficulties would occur. However in 58 BC after he failed to comment on the Roman conquest of Cyprus, a territory ruled by his brother, he was forced to flee to Rome. The Ptolemys coexisted as both Egyptian pharaohs as well as Greek monarchs. Rabirius immediately left Egypt and went back to Rome at the end of 54 BC. She may have been the daughter of Cleopatra V Tryphaina, although Strabo 17.1.11 says only one of the daughters of Ptolemy was legitimate, and that not Cleopatra.Cleopatra married her younger brother Ptolemy XIII and after his death, married her younger brother Ptolemy XIV. Her father Ptolemy XII Aul… Many experts now identify Cleopatra VI with Cleopatra V., Bust of Ptolemy XII housed at the Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities at the, Πτολεμαῖος Νέος Διόνυσος Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλάδελφος, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSullivan1990 (. The exact date of Ptolemy XII's restoration is unknown; the earliest possible date of restoration was 4 January 55 BC and the latest possible date was 24 June the same year. A strike by farmers of royal land in Herakleopolis which is attested in a papyrus document from 61/60 BC has been interpreted as a sign of widespread discontent with this taxation.  According to the author Mary Siani-Davies: Throughout his long-lasting reign the principal aim of Ptolemy was to secure his hold on the Egyptian throne so as to eventually pass it to his heirs. Daughter of King Ptolemy XII Auletes, Cleopatra was destined to become the last queen of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce and its annexation by Rome in 30 bce. Initially, Ptolemy XII funded them by raising taxes. In light of this crisis, however, Ptolemy XII began to expend significant resources on bribing Roman politicians to support his interests. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. His mother is unknown. He was killed while leading the Ptolemaic army against Julius Caesar … As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, he was a descendant of its founder, Ptolemy I. Ptolemy XII was an illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX by an uncertain mother. Increasingly, Ptolemy XII also had recourse to loans from Roman bankers, such as Gaius Rabirius Postumus. , In 58 BC, the Romans took control of Cyprus, causing its ruler, Ptolemy XII's brother, to commit suicide. herself. His mother is unknown.  Ptolemy XII took no action in response to his brother's death and Cyprus remained a Roman province until returned to Ptolemaic control by Julius Caesar in 48 BC. Perhaps Gabinius had also put pressure on Ptolemy XII to appoint Rabirius, who now had direct access to the financial resources of Egypt but exploited the land too much. Cleopatra III sent her grandsons to Kos in 103 BC.  The Greek historian Strabo (c. 63 BC – c. AD 24) stated that the king had only three daughters of whom the eldest has been referred to as Berenice IV. Upon regaining power, Ptolemy acted against Berenice, and along with her supporters, she was executed. He was commonly known as Auletes (Αὐλητής, "the Flautist"), referring to the king's love of playing the flute in Dionysian festivals. Ptolemy XIII … In an effort to prevent this, Ptolemy XII established an alliance with Rome late into his first reign. The identity of his mother is uncertain. He ruled Egypt from 80 B.C.  Ptolemy also permitted a debasing of the coinage as an attempt to repay the loans.  In return, a formal alliance or foedus was formed. Ptolemy XII (Ptolemy Auletes) (tŏl`əmē ôlē`tēz), d. 51 B.C., king of ancient Egypt (80–58 B.C., 55–51 B.C. The line had been founded by Alexander’s general Ptolemy, who became King Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt. , At the moment of Ptolemy XII's restoration, Roman creditors demanded the repayment of their loans, but the Alexandrian treasury could not repay the king's debt. Although the Romans had not acted on this, the possibility that they might forced the following Ptolemies to adopt a careful and respectful policy towards Rome. She wants to rule with Ptolemy X Alexander, but the Alexandrines force her to accept Ptolemy IX Soter, who is fourteen years old, as co-ruler. Ptolemy XII maintained his grip on power in Alexandria with the assistance of around two thousand Roman soldiers and mercenaries, known as the Gabiniani. After 115: Birth of Ptolemy XII Auletes, son of king Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator — ▪ Macedonian king of Egypt Greek“Ptolemy the Father Loving God” born 62/61 died 47 BC, near Alexandria Macedonian king of Egypt and coruler with his famous sister, Cleopatra VII (Cleopatra). Ptolemy also provided pay and maintenance for 8,000 cavalry to Pompey for his war with Judaea. In 117 BC, Ptolemy IX was governor of Cyprus, but in 116 BC his father Ptolemy VIII died and he returned to Alexandria, becoming the junior co-regent of his grandmother Cleopatra II and his mother Cleopatra III. The latter had been lynched by an angry crowd, after he had killed his popular coregent Berenice III of Egypt|Berenice III, who was incidentally also a daughter of Ptolemy IX Soter II. He was more commonly known as. Ptolemy XII was recalled from Pontus and proclaimed king of Egypt, while his brother, also named Ptolemy, became king of Cyprus. She was first briefly co-ruler with her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes and on his death became co-ruler with her brother Ptolemy XIII in the spring of 51 B.C.E. Ptolemy IX was married twice, to his sister Cleopatra IV from around 119 BC until he was forced to divorce her in 115 BC, and secondly to another sister Cleopatra Selene from 115 BC, until he abandoned her during his flight from Alexandria in 107 BC.  This proposal failed in the face of opposition from Quintus Lutatius Catulus and Cicero. ), of the Macedonian dynasty; son of Ptolemy XI. Generally, descriptions of Ptolemy XII portray him as weak and self-indulgent, drunk, or a lover of music. Soon before his death he chose his daughter Cleopatra VII as his coregent. He is succeeded by Cleopatra VII; Summer 50: Cleopatra accepts her brother Ptolemy XIII as co-ruler; Summer 49: Sole rule of Ptolemy XIII, recognized by bothGaius Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, and his opponent, Pompey the Great. Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (The Father-loving God, born 62/61 BCE, died 47 BCE) was pharaoh of Egypt from 51 BCE until his death.  The couple became co-regents and they were incorporated into the Ptolemaic dynastic cult together as the Theoi Philopatores kai Philadelphoi (Father-loving and Sibling-loving Gods). Her father, known as Ptolemy XII or Auletes, was the king of Egypt. After his death in 51 B.C., Cleopatra and her brother, Ptolemy XII, The images of her that had been carved on the main pylon of the Temple of Horus at Edfu were covered over at this time.  Ptolemy adopted a new royal epithet Neos Dionysos (New Dionysus) at some time after this; Chris Bennett proposes that the epithet was linked to the break with Cleopatra. This unique characteristic was maintained through intermarriage; most often these marriages were either between brother and sister or even uncle and niece.  This theory is endorsed by the historian Adrian Goldsworthy. Cleopatra III sent her grandsons to Kos in 103 BC. Dio Cassius reports that a group of 100 men were sent as envoys from Egypt to make their case to the Romans against Ptolemy XII, but Ptolemy had most of these killed before they reached Rome.  According to Strabo, his practice of playing the flute earned him the ridiculing sobriquet Auletes ('flute player'): Now all of the kings after the third Ptolemy, being corrupted by luxurious living, administered the affairs of government badly, but worst of all were the fourth, seventh, and the last, Auletes, who, apart from his general licentiousness, practised the accompaniment of choruses with the flute, and upon this he prided himself so much that he would not hesitate to celebrate contests in the royal palace, and at these contests would come forward to vie with the opposing contestants. One hypothesis contends that possibly they (and perhaps Cleopatra VII) were Ptolemy XII's children with a theoretical half Macedonian Greek, half Egyptian woman belonging to a priestly family from Memphis in northern Egypt, but this is only speculation. He was completely overshadowed from the start by his brilliant and celebrated sister, Cleopatra, who became his … Ptolemy IX meanwhile had been remarried to Cleopatra Selene, with whom he had a daughter, Berenice III. She was a daughter of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes. Ptolemy seemingly had their leader Dio of Alexandria poisoned and most of the other protesters killed before they reached Rome. They were captured by Mithridates VI of Pontus probably in 88 BC, around the time Ptolemy IX returned to the Egyptian throne. He also asked Pompey to come to Alexandria and help to put down a revolt which had apparently broken out in Egypt; Pompey refused. The early life of Cleopatra VII (r. 51 – 10 or 12 August 30 BC) of Ptolemaic Egypt began with her birth in early 69 BC to reigning pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes and an unknown mother (possibly Cleopatra V), and lasted until her accession to the throne by March 51 BC. After their father died in 81 BC, Ptolemy XII's half-sister Berenice III took the throne. , The bribery policy had been unpopular in Egypt for a long time, both because of its obsequiousness and because of the heavy tax burden that it entailed, but the annexation of Cyprus demonstrated its failure and enraged the people of Alexandria. The Banquet of Cleopatra by Gerard Hoet, 1648-1733, via The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles .  Chris Bennett argues that these sons should be identified as Ptolemy XII and Ptolemy of Cyprus. Cleopatra VII, the daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes (“Flute Player”), upon her father’s death uneasily shared the throne with her brother Ptolemy XIII. Shortly after his accession, Ptolemy married Cleopatra Tryphaena. He was more commonly known as. He was king of Egypt from 80 BC to 58 BC and from 55 BC until his death in 51 BC. Death On The Nile: Julius Caesar’s Victory. , When Ptolemy X had died in 88 BC, his will had left Egypt to Rome in the event that he had no surviving heirs. Egypt came under increasing Roman pressure nevertheless. His favorite daughter, Cleopatra VII succeeded him on the throne. Ptolemy XII Auletes - Wikipedia He was succeeded by his daughter, Cleopatra, and son, Ptolemy XIII, as joint rulers as stipulated in his will and testament. However, Cicero and other ancient sources refer to Ptolemy XII as an illegitimate son; Pompeius Trogus called him a "nothos" (bastard), while Pausanias wrote that Ptolemy IX had no legitimate sons at all. This title was probably meant to reinforce Ptolemy XII's claim to the throne in the face of claims that his parentage meant that he was an illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX and therefore not entitled to rule. The eldest of the boys was proclaimed king as Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos and married his sister, Tryphaena.  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