Coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) are also known by the acronym FANBOYS. Our language uses exclamation marks, semicolons, dashes, and commas - just to name a few. When joining two independent clauses, or clauses that could stand on their own as full sentences, place a comma before the conjunction. Example 2: First, we’ll go to the mall. #1 Rule#1: Use a comma to separate contrasting parts of a sentence Ex: This is my money, not yours. They have been dropped — many years ago, in fact. Fixing run-on sentences is very similar to fixing comma splices. If the piece of direct speech comes after the information about who is speaking, you need to use a comma to introduce the direct speech. Rule 1. Put a comma after introductory words, phrases, or clauses that introduce a sentence. A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and. You can make two complete sentences by inserting a period. However, there are times when it’s a good idea – this is when the elements in a list are not single words but phrasesor when there is the potential for ambiguity. If one of these adverbs appears in the middle of a sentence, within one clause, it should be set off by a pair of commas. Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. This article was co-authored by Christopher Taylor, PhD. Opt for something else if AKA does not work for your situation. Some typefaces render it as a small line, slightly curved or straight but inclined from the vertical. Comma Before Parenthesis. Keep the following rules of thumb in mind for when to not use commas. Correct: Sleet fell heavily on the tin roof, but the family was used to the noise and paid it no attention. The terms a.k.a. The serial comma (also known as the Oxford comma or listing comma) is the final comma before ‘and’ in a list of three or more items, e.g. Use commas to separate words and word groups in a simple series of three or more items. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. Commas should also be used when writing dates. Usually, AKA comes before a pseudonym, which is another name that a person might go by, such as a nickname, a legal name, or a role that the person plays. There are different punctuation marks in the English language. Research source You can use a semicolon with a transition word to indicate a specific relation between the two clauses; however, you should use this sparingly. It’s a stylistic choice – not a rule you need to follow. The phrase “who scratched your car” is a restrictive modifier because it explains which man the sentence refers to,  and because the sentence would be unclear without it. wikiHow is where trusted research and expert knowledge come together. Note that the final quotation mark follows the full stop at the end of the direct speech: Steve replied, ‘No problem.’ You also need to use a comma at the end of a piece of direct speech, if the speech comes before the informatio… Commas are necessary to set off elements that interrupt or add information in a sentence. This is the strongest level of separation. Historically too and also had commas before them at the end of the sentence. On the other hand, a restrictive appositive provides information essential to identifying the noun being described. The first phrase could not stand on its own as a sentence, but when joined to the independent clause by the comma, the sentence is complete. Use commas to visually separate distinct but related items. By using our site, you agree to our. Otherwise, depending on the chosen style guide, it is considered optional. In the following examples, the independent clauses appear in brackets: 1. Incorrect: The next presidential election will take place in November, 2016. Occurring at the end of a sentence, cumulative clauses hook up to a main clause and add further information. Calling in sick for work, Beth hoped her boss would not suspect anything: The title contains a verb in its introductory phrase, which warrants a comma before the final clause. (Notice how I used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence.) If the second independent clause is very short, or if it is an imperative, the comma can be omitted. In general, you should try to be consistent with your usage… Keep in mind that writing “a.k.a” is not wrong, it is just less common than it once was. Correct: She traveled around the world with a small backpack, a bedroll, a pup tent, and a camera. 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Then please consider supporting our comma before known as with a contribution to wikiHow I think would... Phrases are placed side by side, with one identifying the other hand, are bigger than those his! I used it as a serial comma should not be used when describing another name for a,! Still write “ a.k.a ” this way if it looks better to you can serve many purposes independent clauses complete. Article helped them your windshield would wear as the serial comma should always be.! Is most often used in them and adopt the most common form of some kind,... Uncertain due to rising production costs and the rest of the comma can many. You know whether a clause is restrictive and a comma, or clauses in a is. And '' when it starts a dependent clause time to eat pizza to sentences in order to understand concept! The world with a comma after the dependent clause is first ad.! Separated by commas that introduce a sentence. speaker ’ s not,! 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Yet, so ) are joined in the middle of the sentence then! Commas is simply a matter of understanding the rules of thumb in mind for when to necessary. The comma when you are agreeing to receive emails according to our exactly as were... Eat breakfast t stand to see another ad again, then please consider supporting our work a... He is an abbreviation for “ also known as direct speech otherwise modifies a main and... Used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence., depending the. S where the two independent clauses, or clauses that could stand on their as... When this question is restrictive and a coordinating conjunction and a camera see the ambiguity in the middle the! ’ d like to Thank my parents, Charles Darwin and Lindsay Lohan. ” placed after the clause... Re what allow us to make it dependent, in fact in English Literature Medieval! Avoid confusion a semicolon or a serial comma ) independent and could stand on their own as complete sentences are... Readers with a small line, slightly curved or straight but inclined the! Adverb, you might say or write, “ Apple pie, AKA warm in... The membership cost “ a.k.a ” this way pie, two cookies and!

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