A supporter of the US alliance, Hawke committed Australian naval forces to the Gulf War, following the 1990 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq.  The Labor party was led by H.V. In L. Shaw & W. Wilkins (eds. -The commonwealth Franchise act was made so the women over the age of 21 could vote in federal elections.  But Australians soon felt vulnerable closer to home. , The Dutch, following shipping routes to the Dutch East Indies, or in search of gold, spices or Christian converts, proceeded to contribute a great deal to Europe's knowledge of Australia's coast.  A Liberal minister, Don Chipp had split off from the party to form a new social liberal party, the Australian Democrats in 1977 and the Franklin Dam proposal contributed to the emergence of an influential Environmental movement in Australia, with branches including the Australian Greens, a political party which later emerged from Tasmania to pursue environmentalism as well as left-wing social and economic policies..  German New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and Nauru were assigned to Australia as League of Nations Mandates: in the category of territories "formerly governed [by the Central Powers] and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world".  The "Premier's Plan" finally accepted by federal and state governments in June 1931, followed the deflationary model advocated by Niemeyer and included a reduction of 20 per cent in government spending, a reduction in bank interest rates and an increase in taxation. In 1958, Australian country music singer Slim Dusty, who would become the musical embodiment of rural Australia, had Australia's first international music chart hit with his bush ballad "Pub With No Beer", while rock and roller Johnny O'Keefe's "Wild One" became the first local recording to reach the national charts, peaking at No. Following World War II, the Chifley Labor government instigated a massive programme of European immigration. , May 1931 had seen the creation of a new conservative political force, the United Australia Party formed by breakaway members of the Labor Party combining with the Nationalist Party.  In March 1931, Lang announced that interest due in London would not be paid and the Federal government stepped in to meet the debt. Harold B. Carter, "Banks, Cook and the Eighteenth Century Natural History Tradition", in Tony Delamotte and Carl Bridge (eds.). Within a few weeks the last military advisors in Vietnam were recalled, and national service ended. While in Brisbane for the annual writers’ festival, I met Murray Bladwell, a retired educationist and a long-serving member of Toowong Rotary Club. The movements to end Australia's involvement gathered strength after the Tet Offensive of early 1968 and compulsory national service (selected by ballot) became increasingly unpopular. " He also promised to introduce legislation to safeguard "White Australia" from any influx of Asian or Pacific Island labour. House of Representatives Hansard, 2 August 1945, pp.  Indigenous Australians were less able to trade with Europeans than were the peoples of India, the East Indies, China, and Japan. Without inhibitions of any kind, I make it clear that Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom.". This progressively forced them into smaller areas and reduced their numbers as the majority died of newly introduced diseases and lack of resources. Synonym Discussion of inquisitive.  Colour TV began broadcasting in 1975. By the end of June 1940, France, Norway, Denmark and the Low Countries had fallen to Nazi Germany. In 1999 Parliament passed a Motion of Reconciliation drafted by Prime Minister John Howard and Aboriginal Senator Aden Ridgeway naming mistreatment of Indigenous Australians as the most "blemished chapter in our national history". It consisted of over a thousand settlers, including 778 convicts (192 women and 586 men).  Barry McKenzie both celebrated and parodied Australian nationalism. In 1779 Sir Joseph Banks, the eminent scientist who had accompanied James Cook on his 1770 voyage, recommended Botany Bay as a suitable site for settlement, saying that "it was not to be doubted that a Tract of Land such as New Holland, which was larger than the whole of Europe, would furnish Matter of advantageous Return". At one point Hughes declared: "I speak for 60,000 [Australian] dead". Though an impressive feat of navigation, the expedition was an organisational disaster which continues to fascinate the Australian public. The war cost Australia $218 million between 1962 and 1972. Many new arrivals were also sick or unfit for work and the conditions of healthy convicts only deteriorated with hard labour and poor sustenance in the settlement. , In March 1900, delegates were dispatched to London, where approval for the Bill was sought from the Imperial Parliament. , Abel Tasman's voyage of 1642 was the first known European expedition to reach Van Diemen's Land (later Tasmania) and New Zealand, and to sight Fiji.  The law permitted a dictation test in any European language to be used to in effect exclude non-"white" immigrants. Tasman to Cook '' in 1896, Tasmania became the first Australian to established. Pushed for clearer restrictions in Federal parliament US established a Republic Advisory Committee, to many denotes. 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