[155] According to Franklin Edgerton, the verses in this chapter in association with select verses in other chapters make the metaphysics of the Gita to be dualistic. [5][7][8], The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis[9][10] of Hindu ideas about dharma,[9][10][11] theistic bhakti,[11][12] and the yogic ideals[10] of moksha. [142], Some translators title the chapter as Bhakti yoga, The Religion of Faith, The Way of Love, or The Yoga of Devotion. It is not those who lack energy Krishna counsels Arjuna to "fulfill his Kshatriya (warrior) duty to uphold the Dharma" through "selfless action". first reach the demigod identified with smoke, etc. [140] It may, in fact, be neither of them, and its contents may have no definition with previously-developed Western terms. [10][11][12] The synthesis is at both philosophical and socio-religious levels, states the Gita scholar Keya Maitra. [283], Abhinavagupta was a theologian and philosopher of the Kashmir Shaivism (Shiva) tradition. [282] To Shankara, the teaching of the Gita is to shift an individual's focus from the outer, impermanent, fleeting objects of desire and senses to the inner, permanent, eternal atman-Brahman-Vasudeva that is identical, in everything and in every being. previous life will take birth in the abominable wombs of dogs, pigs and https://www.facebook.com/perfecthealthmela/videos/405689647183157 He describes the difference between transient perishable physical body (kshetra) and the immutable eternal soul (kshetrajna). [170][11][12], The Gita, states Fowler, "thoroughly accepts" atman as a foundational concept. in the world of mortals. [120] Those who act without craving for fruits are free from the karmic effects, because the results never motivated them. [web 1][3][note 1] The Krishna–Arjuna dialogues cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces. [web 6], The 1993 Sanskrit film, Bhagavad Gita, directed by G. V. Iyer won the 1993 National Film Award for Best Film. However, after many births the person is tired and it is then that he seeks salvation. It openly synthesizes and inclusively accepts multiple ways of life, harmonizing spiritual pursuits through action (karma), knowledge (gyaana), and devotion (bhakti). activities for attaining the pleasures of the heavenly realms and also for For example, state Galvin Flood and Charles Martin, these interpretations have been used to support "pacifism to aggressive nationalism" in politics, from "monism to theism" in philosophy. Theirs is true renunciation. [note 16] Nikhilananda's allegorical interpretation is shared by Huston Smith. The original gist of Bhagavad Gita with English transliteration is available for mere $.60 (rupees 30/=) at most railway stations of India or directly from Gita press, Gorakhpur, India! [1][4][5], Numerous commentaries have been written on the Bhagavad Gita with widely differing views on the essentials. [200], Sivananda's commentary regards the eighteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita as having a progressive order, by which Krishna leads "Arjuna up the ladder of Yoga from one rung to another. ratris meaning smoke and night respectively signify the presiding demigods [216], According to Malinar, "Arjuna's crisis and some of the arguments put forward to call him to action are connected to the debates on war and peace in the Udyoga Parva. [259][260][261] Some translations by Indians, with or without Western co-translators, have "orientalist", "apologetic", "Neo-Vedantin" or "guru phenomenon" bias. Now Lord Krishna explains the path that leads to a return of rebirth in the According to Fowler, the bhakti in the Gita does not imply renunciation of "action", but the bhakti effort is assisted with "right knowledge" and dedication to one's dharma. [32], According to J. Those who see me ruling the cosmos, who see me in the adhibhuta, the adhidaiva, and the adhiyajna, are conscious of me even at the time of death. [5], Bhagavad Gita comprises 18 chapters (section 23 to 40)[107][web 2] in the Bhishma Parva of the epic Mahabharata. Swami Gambhirananda characterises Madhusudana Sarasvati's system as a successive approach in which Karma yoga leads to Bhakti yoga, which in turn leads to Jnana yoga:[202], Some scholars treat the "yoga of meditation" to be a distinct fourth path taught in the Gita, referring to it as Raja yoga. 3. The Hinduism scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in her commentary on the Gita, considers second century BCE to be the probable date of composition. The, An alternate way to describe the poetic structure of. However, the texts he quotes have not survived into the modern era. He is advised by Krishna to do his sva-dharma, a term that has been variously interpreted. Mascaró 2.19 41Kaṭha Upaniṣad Part 2 tr. [272] According to Mysore Hiriyanna, the Gita is "one of the hardest books to interpret, which accounts for the numerous commentaries on it–each differing from the rest in one essential point or the other". [166][167] Like some of the Upanishads, the Gita does not limit itself to the nirguna Brahman. [194][195] In the Bhagavad Gita, it is also referred to as buddhi yoga and its goal is self-realization. Tilak and Gandhi and their use to inspire the independence movement see: Oppenheimer spoke these words in the television documentary. "[238], According to Dennis Hudson, there is an overlap between Vedic and Tantric rituals with the teachings found in the Bhagavad Gita. [152][153][154], Some translators title the chapter as Purushottama yoga, Religion by Attaining the Supreme Krishna, The Supreme Self, or The Yoga of the Supreme Purusha. 1 See, for example, Bhagavad Gita 2:22 One either takes up a different body for a while through reincarnation, only to cast it off as well, or one finally breaks free and never has a body again. In 1966, Mahārishi Mahesh Yogi published a partial translation. Those who act selfishly create the karmic cause and are thereby bound to the effect which may be good or bad. Oppenheimer later recalled that, while witnessing the explosion of the Trinity nuclear test, he thought of verses from the Bhagavad Gita (XI,12): दिवि सूर्यसहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता यदि भाः सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः ॥११- १२॥ (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. Moksha, which is the release or liberation of the Atman from the cycle of rebirth combined with karma yoga (the way of action), is a way to reach this state of enlightenment. [46] Such an era emerged after the rise of Buddhism and Jainism in the 5th century BCE, and particularly after the semi-legendary life of Ashoka in 3rd century BCE. Thus by mediation and The concept of cycle of life and death is best understood following sacred Bhagavad Gita of Hinduism! According to Edwin Bryant and Maria Ekstrand, this school incorporates and integrates aspects of "qualified monism, dualism, monistic dualism, and pure nondualism". [357], Gandhi's view differed from Aurobindo's view. Mother Geeta in the similar shloka form. The actual dates of composition of the Gita remain unresolved. [182] However, this action should "not simply follow spiritual injunctions", without any attachment to personal rewards or because of craving for fruits. The Bhagavad Gita is a story of wisdom and ascension, a classic root of Hindu philosophy. This chapter is an overview for the remaining sixteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita. Krishna then reveals Himself to Arjuna as Lord Vishnu, Arjuna is overwhelmed and bursts into a great hymn of praise. "[13][15], The Bhagavad Gita is part of the Prasthanatrayi, which also includes the Upanishads and Brahma sutras. [70][note 9] One must do the right thing because one has determined that it is right, states Gita, without craving for its fruits, without worrying about the results, loss or gain. Krishna says that such self-realized people are impartial to friends and enemies, are beyond good and evil, equally disposed to those who support them or oppose them because they have reached the summit of consciousness. ritualistic Vedic activities will reach the celestial heavens and after [234][235], Indian independence leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak saw the Gita as a text which defended war when necessary and used it to promote armed rebellion against colonial rule. [14][15] The Gita's call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi; the latter referred to it as his "spiritual dictionary".[16]. It is more broadly, the "duty" and a "metaphysically congealed act" for Arjuna. It was the first of books; it was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us. It discusses who is a true yogi, and what it takes to reach the state where one harbors no malice towards anyone. [18][112][113] On Arjuna's request, Krishna displays his "universal form" (Viśvarūpa). Thus it is very difficult to evolve from this "[201] The influential commentator Madhusudana Sarasvati divided the Gita's eighteen chapters into three sections of six chapters each. I find a verse here and a verse there and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming tragedies – and my life has been full of external tragedies – and if they have left no visible, no indelible scar on me, I owe it all to the teaching of Bhagavadgītā.[330][331]. The knowledge of one's true self is linked to the realization of the soul. Bhagavad Gita Hinduism interprets process of reincarnation… rebirth in a different way! [150], Some translators title the fourteenth chapter as Gunatraya–Vibhaga yoga, Religion by Separation from the Qualities, The Forces of Evolution, or The Yoga of the Division of Three Gunas. J. Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist and director of the Manhattan Project, learned Sanskrit in 1933 and read the Bhagavad Gita in the original form, citing it later as one of the most influential books to shape his philosophy of life. According to Chatterjee, the Krishna's religion of Gita is "not so narrow-minded". A. [104] According to Sargeant, it delves into questions about the "purpose of life, crisis of self-identity, human soul, human temperaments, and ways for spiritual quest". Other parallelism include verse 10.21 of Gita replicating the structure of verse 1.2.5 of the Shatapatha Brahmana. Learn the important quotes in The Bhagavad Gita and the chapters they're from, including why they're important and what they mean in the context of the book. Tilak and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi as notable commentators see: For notability of the commentaries by B.G. Academic commentaries include those by Jeaneane Fowler, A collection of Christian commentaries on the, This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 08:01. For other uses, see, Face pages of chapters 1, 2 and 3 of historic, Verse 2.21 from the Bhagavad Gita (15 secs), Verse 2.47, "act without craving for fruits" (16 secs), Krishna states that the body is impermanent and dies, never the immortal soul, the latter is either reborn or achieves. [85], According to Hiltebeitel, Bhakti forms an essential ingredient of this synthesis, and the text incorporates Bhakti into Vedanta. [190] Theologian Catherine Cornille writes, "The text [of the Gita] offers a survey of the different possible disciplines for attaining liberation through knowledge (Jnana), action (karma), and loving devotion to God (bhakti), focusing on the latter as both the easiest and the highest path to salvation. merit as well those doing philanthropic activities such as donating food [156] According to Huston Smith, the Gita is teaching that "when one sees the entire universe as pervaded by the single Universal Spirit [Krishna], one contemplates, marvels, and falls in love with its amazing glory. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, commented on the Gita: The Bhagavad-Gita deals essentially with the spiritual foundation of human existence. [18][112][113] Krishna qualifies the three divisions of faith, thoughts, deeds, and even eating habits corresponding to the three modes (gunas). [247] Richard Davis cites a count by Callewaert & Hemraj in 1982 of 1,891 translations of the Bhagavad Gita in 75 languages, including 273 in English. [18][112][113] The chapter opens as a continuation of Krishna's teachings about selfless work and the personality of someone who has renounced the fruits that are found in chapter 5. Mascaró 2.14-16 40Bhagavad-Gita tr. [97], The Gita is a dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna right before the start of the climactic Kurukshetra War in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. Article Shared By. Whenever dharma declines and the purpose of life is forgotten by men, says Krishna, he returns to re-establish dharma. [264] Swami Rambhadracharya released the first Braille version of the scripture, with the original Sanskrit text and a Hindi commentary, on 30 November 2007. The text states that Dasasloki – possibly authored by Nimbarka – teaches the essence of the Gita; the Gita tattva prakashika interprets the Gita also in a hybrid monist-dualist manner.[290][291]. At a time when Indian nationalists were seeking an indigenous basis for social and political action against colonial rule, Bhagavad Gita provided them with a rationale for their activism and fight against injustice. Bhakti is the most important means of attaining liberation. [229], Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, in his commentary on the Gita,[230] interprets the battle as "an allegory in which the battlefield is the soul and Arjuna, man's higher impulses struggling against evil". [345][346][347] B. R. Ambedkar, born in a Dalit family and the principal architect of the Constitution of India, criticized the text for its stance on caste and for "defending certain dogmas of religion on philosophical grounds". [224], Unlike any other religious scripture, the Bhagavad Gita broadcasts its message in the centre of the battlefield. [244] The Wilkins translation had an introduction to the Gita by Warren Hastings. [101] He sees that some among his enemies are his own relatives, beloved friends, and revered teachers. [46] The competing tradition may be the materialists (Charvaka), states Fowler. [222] War is depicted as a horror, the impending slaughter a cause of self-doubts, yet at stake is the spiritual struggle against evil. Thus, the first version of the Bhagavad Gita may have been composed in or after the 3rd century BCE. This path is the path where the manes or ancestors The Brihadaranyaka Upanisad VI.II.XVI states: They The text explores the "paradoxical interconnectedness of disciplined action and freedom". [204] Some, such as Adi Shankara, have considered its discussion in the 13th chapter of the Gita and elsewhere to be an integral part of the Jnana yoga. Otherwise what one will think at the moment of death will be mere ego related ideas derived from one's own mundane empirical experiences. [72][73][74] It states the dharmic householder can achieve the same goals as the renouncing monk through "inner renunciation", that is "motiveless action". [160], Some translators title the chapter as Moksha–Sanyasa yoga, Religion by Deliverance and Renunciation, Freedom and Renunciation, or The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation. [138] He equates himself to being the father and the mother of the universe, to being the Om, to the three Vedas, to the seed, the goal of life, the refuge and abode of all. [115] Thomas Merton, the Trappist monk and author of books on Zen Buddhism, concurs with Gandhi and states that the Gita is not teaching violence nor propounding a "make war" ideology. It remains a popular text for commentators belonging to various philosophical schools. It equates self-knowledge and the union with Purusha (Krishna) as the Self to be the highest goal of any spiritual pursuit. This knowledge leads to the universal, transcendent Godhead, the divine essence in all beings, to Brahman – the Krishna himself. [178] According to Raju, the Gita supports this identity and spiritual monism, but as a form of synthesis with a personal God. [63][91], According to Gambhirananda, the old manuscripts may have had 745 verses, though he agrees that 700 verses is the generally accepted historic standard. one after another in ascending succession until they reach Svargaloka the "[192] The Gita likely spawned a "powerful devotionalism" movement, states Fowler, because the text and this path was simpler, available to everyone. [214] According to Paul Hacker, the term dharma has additional meanings in the context of Arjuna. Krishna is presented as a teacher who "drives Arjuna and the reader beyond initial preconceptions". According to the Indologist Paul Hacker, the contextual meaning in the Gita is the "dharma of a particular varna". The text states that combining "action with inner renunciation" with the love of Krishna as a personal God leads to peace. It has 18 chapters in total. In Minor's view, the Harvard scholar Franklin Edgerton's English translation and Richard Garbe's German translation are closer to the text than many others. Krishna replies that there is no way to avoid action (karma), since abstention from work is also an action. [22], In the Indian tradition, the Bhagavad Gita, as well as the epic Mahabharata of which it is a part, is attributed to the sage Vyasa,[23] whose full name was Krishna Dvaipayana, also called Veda-Vyasa. The warrior Arjuna whose past had focused on learning the skills of his profession now faces a war he has doubts about. [31], Swami Vivekananda, the 19th-century Hindu monk and Vedantist, stated that the Bhagavad Gita may be old but it was mostly unknown in the Indian history till early 8th century when Adi Shankara (Shankaracharya) made it famous by writing his much-followed commentary on it. Vallabha the proponent of "Suddhadvaita" or pure non-dualism, wrote a commentary on the Gita, the "Sattvadipika". [39] J. [210] According to Fowler, dharma in this verse may refer to the sanatana dharma, "what Hindus understand as their religion, for it is a term that encompasses wide aspects of religious and traditional thought and is more readily used for religion". Nirvana is the destruction of rebirth and defilements, a holy and enlightened state that can be reached in this life, and at death, permanently. Philosophy: the Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass theistic monistic! That _____ emphasized earthy obligations without regard to concerns relating to afterlife and.... 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